Duplex Sentence Part with Instrumental Predicative
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Abstract: The article analyzes one of the semantico-grammatical models of the Russian language in which logical and grammatical predications do not coincide – the model of the duplex sentence part with an instrumental predicative (on zastal ee plachushchey, roditeli uvideli syna tantsuyushchim he found her crying, the parents saw their son dancing). Duplex sentence parts in general, as sentence members with a double syntactic connection, are syncretic. However, the model under study is specific. The article shows that formally similar constructions are differentiated based on the number of semantic subjects. In constructions with a single semantic subject (Elena vyshla iz doma plachushchey Elena left the house crying), the duplex sentence part with a predicative in the instrumental case performs a predicative-attributive function and can be qualified as part of a compound nominal predicate. In constructions with two semantic subjects (Deti uvideli slona spyashchim Children saw the elephant sleeping), the duplex sentence part demonstrates a grammatical anomaly, the essence of which is described in the article. Syntactically, this instrumental case form cannot be considered a predicative (i.e. part of a compound nominal predicate), as long as such analysis does not conform to the requirement to the uniformity of subject correlation of the predicatives (the children saw but it was the elephant that was sleeping). That is why such duplex sentence part with instrumental predicative is predicative not in the formal-grammatical sense but semantically, implicitly expressing the meaning of the logical predicate of the second, also implicitly expressed subject. The study of one model allows the author not only to consider the language peculiarity, which manifests itself in the discrepancy of semantic and grammatical relations, but also to penetrate the sphere of language philosophy and even linguoculturology via a particular phenomenon. One simple sentence without detached members of the sentence, realizes two logical connections between subjects and their processual features, expressed by the most complex grammatical relations. If grammatical compression can be recognized as a language universal, then such a complex play of correlation of semantic and grammatical relations is a clear manifestation by the national semantics of its grammatical potential, which, of course, is yet to be studied by linguistic community in the system of many particular models.
Key words: Duplex sentence part, syncretism, polyfunctionality, grammatical compression, Russian language, sentence parts, Russian syntax, grammatical predication.
Ivanenko, G. S. (2020). Duplex Sentence Part with Instrumental Predicative. In Philological Class. 2020. Vol. 25 ⋅ №4. P. 99–108. DOI 10.26170/FK20-04-10.