DETERMINING THE AUTHOR'S POSITION: FIVE STAGES OF THE COGNITIVE PROCESS OF INFORMATION DECODING
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Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of formation of communicative skills of a student, tested on the unified state exam in the Russian language by writing on the read text. We consider the aspect of decoding the meaning, which in the structure of the exam is designated as a criterion for «determining the position of the author». Regardless of the changing forms of final control, one of the basic skills formed in the course of the Russian language is the ability of a high school graduate to understand the meaning of the text, to determine the idea expressed by the whole structure of the work in the complex of its rational and emotive components. The technique of work with pupils on formation of skill of interpretation of the text is offered. The technique includes five stages, the separation of which structures the complex cognitive process of decoding the meaning and helps to organize both the school lesson and independent work of the student. The first stage is the extraction of factual information from the text with the connection of background knowledge: determining the time, place of action, age, social and other characteristics of the characters. The second stage-the definition of the author's estimates. It is necessary not to miss not only explicit evaluation, but also subtext, expressed through the description of appearance, attributes, various connotative means, for example, stylistically colored language units at any language level — from morphemic to syntactic. The third stage is the disclosure of the subtext as a result of the analysis of antithesis, allegories, metaphors, paradoxes, and other metalogical means of information transfer. The fourth stage is the synthesis, the output from the particular case in typologically significant model. The fifth stage is the formation of the concept and formulation of the idea of the text (the author's position). To implement this, the most difficult in comparison with all the previous tasks, the student must combine the information obtained as a result of work at all previous stages, and impose on the General cultural background: take into account the sign system of the era, the laws of the artistic language of the author, direction, genre. The proposed five-step method of determining the author's position as a cognitive process for decoding information in a complex of rational and emotional components is used by the author in practice and contributes to the formation of students ' skill of extracting meaning from the text. The intellectual process remains not described in the composition, but its result is reflected in the accuracy of the problem formulation, in the depth of the comment and in the communicative adequacy of the author's position expression. Keywords: author’s position; understanding of texts; learning texts; text interpretation; information decoding; Russian, methods of teaching Russian; methods of teaching Russian at school; senior schoolchildren; knowledge testing; preparation for exams; USE; Unified State Exam.
Key words: AUTHOR’S POSITION; UNDERSTANDING OF TEXTS; LEARNING TEXTS; TEXT INTERPRETATION; INFORMATION DECODING; RUSSIAN, METHODS OF TEACHING RUSSIAN; METHODS OF TEACHING RUSSIAN AT SCHOOL; SENIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN; KNOWLEDGE TESTING; PREPARATION FOR EXAMS; USE; UNIFIED STATE EXAM
Ivanenko, G. S. Determining the Author's Position: Five Stages of the Cognitive Process of Information Decoding / G. S. Ivanenko. In Philological Class. 2018. №4 (54). P. 117-123. DOI 10.26710/fk18-04-17 .