Рубрика: PROBLEMS OF POETICS OF FOREIGN LITERATURE
Article: PDF
Abstract: The article deals with the fundamental existential topos of modernist poetry – “transcendental homelessness” (“transzendentale Obdachlosigkeit” is a term coined by G. Lukács). The concept of transcendental homelessness goes back to the ideas of Kant, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche in Europe and to transcendentalism in America (Emerson, Thoreau). The idea of transcendental homelessness in relation to modernist poetry means transcendental abandonment, insecurity of man by God and society and is manifested both in European poetry and in the literature of the two Americas. A comparison of a number of texts reveals not only their intertextuality, but also a lively dialogue between the texts and the authors (Hoddis, Lichtenstein, Klemm). The topos under study receives its culminating expression in the poems of the “end of the world” (Hoddis, Klemm, McLeish, etc.), based on Spengler’s ideas about the “Untergang des Abendlandes” and Nietzsche’s nihilism. German expressionists most vividly expressed the motif of the “end of the world” as a continuation of the mythological plot of the “Gotterdämmerung”, captured by K. Pinthus in the anthology “Menschheitsdämmerung” (1919/20). The topos finds its logical conclusion in epitaph sonnets (Ungaretti, Vallejo, Desnos, etc.). In poetological sonnets (Unamuno, Becher, Jimenez, Machado, etc.), poets attempt to get out of the situation of transcendental homelessness by appealing to the creative potential of language, by turning to the poetic tradition, and glorifying national poets. The sonnet, as a form most consistently supporting European poetic traditions, turned out to be the most acceptable poetic form for expressing the idea of the possibility of a dialogue between cultures and the acquisition of a language ark.
Key words: Transcendental homelessness, poetic creative activity; lyrical genres; poetical motifs; end of the world; epitaph sonnets; modernism; expressionism; poetological sonnets

Для цитирования:

Андреюшкина, Т. Н. «Трансцендентальная бездомность» в западных модернистских сонетах / Т. Н. Андреюшкина // Philological Class. – 2022. – Vol. 27 ⋅ №1. – С. 166-178.

For citation

Andreiushkina, T. N. (2022). “Transcendental Homelessness” in Western Modernist Sonnets. In Philological Class. 2022. Vol. 27 ⋅ №1. P. 166-178.

About the author(s) :

Tatiana N. Andreiushkina
Togliatti State University (Togliatti, Russia)
ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2818-983X

Publication Timeline:

Date of receipt: 03.08.2021; date of publication: 30.03.2022

References:

Аndreiushkina, Т. N. (2019). Stikhotvorenie-inverntarizatsiya kak poetologicheskii katalog [PoemInventory as a Poetological Catalog]. In Mirgorod. No. 2 (14), pp. 61-77.

Bachmann, I. (1978). Werke. Bd. 1 / ed. by Ch. Koschel. München. 840 p.

Becher, J. R. (1973). Gedichte 1949–1952. Berlin, Weimar, Aufbau-Verlag. 537 p.

Contini, G. Sobre Ungaretti. URL: https://ru.scribd.com/document/266639595/ Gianfranco-Contini-SobreUngaretti (mode of access: 10.05.2021).

Enzensberger, H. M. (Ed.). (2002). Museum der modernen Poesie. Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp. 867 p.

Freud, S. (1978). Hemmung, Symptom und Angst. München, Kindler Verlag. 87 p.

Friedrich, H. (1996). Die Struktur der modernen Lyrik. Von der Mitte des neunzehnten bis zur Mitte des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Reinbek bei Hamburg, Rowohlt. 332 p.

Jiménez, J. R. Poetry. URL: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poetrymagazine/ browse?volume=82&issue= 4&page=12 (mode of access: 10.05.2021).

Lichtenstein, A. (1962). Die Dämmerung (1913). In Kanzog, K. (Ed.). Gesammelte Gedichte. Zürich, Verlag der Arche, p. 44.

Lukaćs, G. (1971). Die Theorie des Romans. Ein geschichtsphilosophischer Versuch über die Formen der großen Epik (1916). Berlin, P. Cassirer. 169 p.

Emmerich, W., Heil, S. (Eds.). (1985). Lyrik des Exils. Stuttgart, Reclam. 512 p.

Маchado, A. (2009). Galerei dushi [Soul Galleries] / trans. by V. Аndreev. Saint Petersburg, Azbuka-klassika. 248 p.

Меletinsky, Е. М. (Ed.). (1991). Mifologicheskii slovar’ [Mythological Dictionary]. Мoscow, Sovetskaya entsiklopediya. 736 p. 

Pinthus, K. (Ed.). (1996). Menschheitsdämmerung. Berlin, Neuausgabe. 384 p.

Pessoa, F. 35 Sonnets. URL: https://acervodigital.ufpr.br/bitstream/handle/ 1884/36599/R%20-%20D%20%20RAFAEL%20BORGES%20ARDILES.pdf? sequence=1&isAllowed=y (mode of access: 10.05.2021).

Rilke, R. M. (2002). Sonety k Orfeyu [Sonnets to Orpheus] / trans. by A. Purin. Saint Petersburg, Azbukaklassika. 192 p.

Rossetti, D. G. House of life. URL: http://www.rossettiarchive.org/docs/s258. rap.html (mode of access:

10.05.2021).

Rossiyanov, О. (2008). Chernoe i beloe [Black and White]. In Toper, P. M. (Ed.). Entsiklopedicheskii slovar’ expressionizma. Мoscow, IMLI RAN, pp. 635-637.

Schopenhauer, A. (2014). Von der Nichtigkeit und dem Leiden des Lebens. München, GRIN Verlag. 11 p. 

Simmel, G. (1918). Der Konflikt der Kultur. München und Leipzig, Duncker & Humblot. 48 p.

Simyan, T. S. (2017). K ponimaniyu ponyatii «modern», «modernizm», «avangardizm» v (post)sovetskom i nemetskom literaturovedenii (opyt unifikatsii ponyatii) [On the Understanding of the Concepts «Modern», «Modernism», «Avangardism» in (post)Sovjet and German Literary Criticism (Experience of Unification of Concepts)]. In Kritika i semiotika. No. 2, pp. 326-359.

Spengler, O. (2017). Der Untergang des Abendlandes. Köln, Anaconda. 1472 p.

Tillich, P. (2020). Gesammelte Werke. Schriften zur Theologie der Kultur / hg. von R. Aldrecht. Berlin, De Gruyter. 400 p.

Unamuno, M. Palabras. URL: http://www.litsovet.ru/index.php/material.read?Material_id=155313 (mode of access: 10.05.2021).

Ungaretti, G. (1969). L’Allegria. Milano, Mondadori. 88 p.